Saudi Arabia is planning on operating a fiscal deficit of approximately $35 billion (just over five percent of GDP) for the year 2019. Once it has issued the debt required for funding this deficit, Saudi Arabia’s public debt should rise to around 22 percent of GDP. This low figure means that the government has the option of running an even larger fiscal deficit. Conversely, it could choose to tighten its belt aggressively and balance its budget well in advance of its 2023 target. Which option is best?